You can track any thing sent via India post, be it registered post or speed-post, you can track it via its official (.gov.in) website - https://www.indiapost.gov.in/VAS/Pages/trackconsignment.aspx
Passports and ITVs are in general sent via SpeedPost service of India Post. Intercity (ie., with in the city) speed post should reach by the end of next business day. The Passport Authority of India would have sent you an SMS with the tracking code when your passport has been dispatched. You should enter the tracking ID in the IndiaPost website.